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Soy: Health Food or Food to Avoid?


by Gary F. Zeolla

These references are for the two-part article Soy: Health Food or Food to Avoid?.

PMID refers to the PubMed Index number. These have been included so that interested readers can easily find the abstracts on PubMed. Simply do a search on the PMID number.

References given in order of occurrence.

Prostate Cancer:
Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Jul;12(7):665-8. Lee MM, Gomez SL, Chang JS, Wey M, Wang RT, Hsing AW. PMID: 12869409.
Emerging evidence on the role of soy in reducing prostate cancer risk. Nutr Rev. 2003 Apr;61(4):117-31. Messina MJ. PMID: 12795445.
“Soy phytochemicals and tea bioactive components synergistically inhibit androgen-sensitive human prostate tumors in mice.” Journal of Nutrition. 2003 Feb;133(2):516-21. Zhou JR, Yu L, Zhong Y, Blackburn GL. PMID: 12566493.

Breast Cancer:
Soy and Breast Cancer: Questions Remain. Mayo Clinic. Monday, February 17, 2003.
Experts Concerned About Soy and Breast Cancer.
Soy, isoflavones, and breast cancer risk in Japan. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Jun 18;95(12):906-13. Yamamoto S, Sobue T, Kobayashi M, Sasaki S, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study on Cancer Cardiovascular Diseases Group. PMID: 12813174.
Tofu and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996 Nov;5(11):901-6. Wu AH, Ziegler RG, Horn-Ross PL, Nomura AM, West DW, Kolonel LN, Rosenthal JF, Hoover RN, Pike MC. PMID: 8922298.
Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans. Int J Cancer. 2003 Sep 10;106(4):574-9. Wu AH, Yu MC, Tseng CC, Hankin J, Pike MC. PMID: 12845655.
Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):559S-569S. Riboli E, Norat T. PMID: 12936950.

Other Cancers:
Soybeans, Soy Foods, Isoflavones and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Review of Experimental and Epidemiological Data. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2002;3(2):125-132. Toyomura K, Kono S. PMID: 12718590.
A prospective cohort study of soy product intake and stomach cancer death. Br J Cancer. 2002 Jul 1;87(1):31-6. Nagata C, Takatsuka N, Kawakami N, Shimizu H. PMID: 12085252.
Phyto-oestrogens and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2002 Jun;3(6):364-73. Adlercreutz H. PMID: 12107024.
Dietary soy and increased risk of bladder cancer: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Dec;11(12):1674-7. PMID: 12496060.
Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1991 Sep;2(5):325-57. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. PMID: 1834240.
Role of yoghurt in the prevention of colon cancer. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Aug;56 Suppl 3:S65-8. Perdigon G, de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Valdez J, Rachid M. PMID: 12142967.
Diet and colon cancer in Los Angeles County, California. Cancer Causes Control. 1992 Sep;3(5):457-73. Peters RK, Pike MC, Garabrant D, Mack TM. PMID: 1525327.

Cholesterol and Heart Disease:
Soy and Heart Disease. University of Arkansas: Division of Agriculture.
Soy food consumption is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese women. J Nutr. 2003 Sep;133(9):2874-8. Zhang X, Shu XO, Gao YT, Yang G, Li Q, Li H, Jin F, Zheng W. PMID: 12949380.
Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA. 1999 Jun 2;281(21):1998-2004. Wolk A, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hu FB, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. PMID: 10359388.
Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 2002 Apr 10;287(14):1815-21. Hu FB, Bronner L, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Rexrode KM, Albert CM, Hunter D, Manson JE. PMID: 11939867.
The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jun 19;134(12):1106-14. Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Speizer FE, Colditz G, Ascherio A, Rosner B, Spiegelman D, Willett WC. PMID: 11412050.
Nut consumption, vegetarian diets, ischemic heart disease risk, and all-cause mortality: evidence from epidemiologic studies. Sabate, J. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):500S-503S.
Legume consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Nov 26;161(21):2573-8. Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria C, Vupputuri S, Myers L, Whelton PK. PMID: 11718588.
Black and green tea and heart disease: a review. Biofactors. 2000;13(1-4):127-32. Vinson JA. PMID: 11237171.
Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jul 16;42(2):246-52. Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, Spiegelman D, Hu FB, Manson JE, Willett WC. PMID: 12875759.
Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA. 1998 Feb 4;279(5):359-64. Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, Sampson L, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Hennekens C, Stampfer MJ. PMID: 9459468.

Spotlight on Soy. Robbins, John.
Soy and Breast Cancer.
Dietary phytoestrogens and their effect on bone: evidence from in vitro and in vivo, human observational, and dietary intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):593S-609S. Setchell KD, Lydeking-Olsen E. PMID: 12936954.
Soy protein has a greater effect on bone in postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, as evidenced by reducing bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion. : J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Mar;88(3):1048-54. Arjmandi BH, Khalil DA, Smith BJ, Lucas EA, Juma S, Payton ME, Wild RA. PMID: 12629084.
The effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on lipids and indices of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003 Jun;58(6):704-9. Dalais FS, Ebeling PR, Kotsopoulos D, McGrath BP, Teede HJ. PMID: 12780746.
Somer, Elizabeth, M.A., R.D. The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals. New York: HarperPaperback, 1992, pp. 24, 84-86, 109, 120.
Nutrition Action HealthLetter
, Vol. 27, No. 3, April, 2000, “Multiple Choice: How to Pick a Multivitamin, p. 4.
Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):584S-592S. Kerstetter JE, O'Brien KO, Insogna KL. PMID: 12936953.
Low protein intake: the impact on calcium and bone homeostasis in humans. J Nutr. 2003 Mar;133(3):855S-861S. Kerstetter JE, O'Brien KO, Insogna KL. PMID: 12612169.

Hormone Levels in Men:
Men’s Health
. “Soy? Sorry …” Shannon Davis. May 2003. Vol. 18, Iss. 4; pg. 126. “100 ways to live forever.” Adam Campbell, Brian Good. Jul/Aug 2003. Vol. 18, Iss. 6; pg. 154. And short items in various other issues.
Soy is Still Bad Protein. Testosterone Magazine. Glen Neilson.
Hormonal effects of soy in premenopausal women and men. J Nutr. 2002 Mar;132(3):570S-573S. Kurzer MS. PMID: 11880595.

Soy Infant Formula:
Natural Foods Merchandise.
Soy Formula Slashes Baby Testosterone. October 2002.
Exposure to soy-based formula in infancy and endocrinological and reproductive outcomes in young adulthood. JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2402-3. Strom BL, Schinnar R, Ziegler EE, Barnhart KT, Sammel MD, Macones GA, Stallings VA, Drulis JM, Nelson SE, Hanson SA. PMID: 11497534.
Experts Dispute JAMA Soy Infant Formula Study
Soy Infant Formula Dangerous to Babies, Say Groups

Other Proposed Benefits and Potential Drawbacks:
“Hormonal and metabolic response in elite female gymnasts undergoing strenuous training and supplementation with SUPRO Brand Isolated Soy Protein.” Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical . 2001 Mar;41(1):89-94. Stroescu V, Dragan J, Simionescu L, Stroescu OV. PMID: 11317154.
“Vitamin C reduces post-workout soreness.” Physical Magazine. August 2002, p.18.
“Vitamin E cuts post-workout soreness.” Physical Magazine. November 2002, p.21.
Effects of soy protein on levels of remnant-like particles cholesterol and vitamin E in healthy men. : J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2001 Aug;47(4):283-8. Higashi K, Abata S, Iwamoto N, Ogura M, Yamashita T, Ishikawa O, Ohslzu F, Nakamura H. PMID: 11767208.
Soy is Still Bad Protein. Testosterone Magazine. Glen Neilson.

Quality of Soy Protein:
Protein Utilization: How Much is Absorbed? Franco Columbu.
Whey Protein: a Unique Source of Protein. Leibovitz, Brian, Ph.D.
Advantages of Whey Protein.
"Muscle Bulletin." Men's Health, September 2005, p.200.

Soy: Health Food or Food to Avoid? Copyright 2003-2005 By Gary F. Zeolla.

Disclaimers: All company and products names are registered trademarks of the respective companies.

The material presented in this article is intended for educational purposes only. The author is not offering medical or legal advice. Accuracy of information is attempted but not guaranteed. Before undertaking any diet, exercise, or health improvement program, one should consult your doctor. The author is in no way responsible or liable for any bodily harm, physical, mental, or emotional, that results from following any of the advice in this article.

The above article was posted on this site October 7, 2003.
It was updated September 3, 2005.

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